Over the past five years, the number of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan who left for permanent residence in other countries increased from 24 thousand in 2013 to 37 thousand in 2017. In terms of countries, the largest share falls on emigrants who left for the Russian Federation - 86% (33 thousand people), to Germany - 7.9% (3 thousand people).
In 2017, the largest outflow of migrants is observed from the Karaganda region - 6.2 thousand people, as well as from the border areas with Russia: East Kazakhstan - 5.1 thousand people, Kostanay - 5.0 thousand people, Pavlodar - 4.4 thousand people. and North Kazakhstan - 3.4 thousand people.
As of 9 months of 2018, the number of departures from the country is 31.5 thousand people.
The main migration flows in 2018, as before, are formed with neighboring countries. Of all those who left the republic, the main part of the emigrants are taken by the CIS countries - 28.6 thousand people (91%), including Russia - 28 thousand people (89%).
According to the level of education and qualifications of emigrants, 28% have higher education, 22% - secondary special education, 50% - general and incomplete secondary education. Among the retired 68% are in the working age group from 16 to 63 years old, 25% in children under 15 years old, 7% in people of retirement age.
According to the ethnic composition of emigrants: Russians - 73%, Germans - 8%, Ukrainians - 7%, other ethnic groups - 12%.
The main reasons for the migration outflow include:
- return to their historic homeland;
- reunion with relatives.
In order to prevent outflow of the population outside the country, the following measures are taken:
1. Within the framework of the Five Presidential Social Initiatives, an additional 20,000 to 54,000 annual grants were allocated to increase the access and quality of higher education in the 2018–2019 school year, which will prepare more highly qualified specialists for the needs of the economy of Kazakhstan.
2. In accordance with the Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of October 5, 2018 “Growth of Kazakhstan's welfare: increase of income and quality of life”, starting from 2019, the minimum wage will be increased by 1.5 times, which will contribute to the growth of wages and money incomes of the population.
3. To reduce negative migration trends and demographic imbalances between regions of the country, since 2016, voluntary resettlement of people from labor-surplus regions to regions with labor shortages, as well as resettlement of oralmans in labor-deficient regions has been implemented.
Identified regions for the resettlement of oralmans and displaced persons: East Kazakhstan, Kostanay, Pavlodar, North Kazakhstan regions. From 2016, more than 11 thousand people were resettled to these regions, 29 thousand people are planned to be resettled until 2021.
For citizens and oralmans who migrated to the above regions, two types of subsidies are provided as measures of state support:
- for relocation - a lump sum payment to each family member according to
35 monthly calculation indicators.
- to cover the cost of hiring (renting) housing and paying utility bills, which are paid monthly during
12 months - from 15 to 30 monthly settlement indicators per family.
Along with the provision of relocation and rental subsidies,
From 2018, additional provision is made to provide subsidies to employers for each employee accepted for permanent work (at least 5 people) out of the number of immigrants - in the amount of 450 monthly estimated indicators, provision of state grants for the implementation of new business ideas in the amount of up to 100 monthly calculated indicators.
4. A social project for the equal distribution of educational grants and the promotion of youth employment "Serpyn-2050" is being implemented. Within the framework of the project, young people from the southern regions of the country are sent for training and further employment in the northern and central regions of Kazakhstan, which are experiencing a shortage of workers.
About 17 thousand grants have been allocated for these purposes, of which 13 thousand - to universities and 4 thousand - to colleges.
5. In order to accelerate modernization and reduce the negative balance of migration, the Government in September 2018 approved the Comprehensive Plan for the Social and Economic Development of North Kazakhstan Region for 2018–2021.
The plan consists of 48 regulatory, organizational and implementation measures, of which 139.6 billion tenges is provided within the framework of the Republican budget, and 15 billion tenges from the local budget.
Within the framework of the Comprehensive Plan, it is planned to develop infrastructure, provide subsidies and microlending, which will enable to activate the business and create up to 3 thousand new jobs to the 98 thousand existing ones. It is planned to build 3 thousand houses for immigrants using the new mechanism, which will make it possible to take more than 13 thousand people from the labor-surplus regions of the republic, to implement the construction of a modern multi-profile hospital for 700 beds, to carry out a major overhaul at 120 secondary education facilities.